Copper

Immune Support
Copper is a necessary mineral for immune health. Research shows that in copper deficiency, interleukin 2 and T cell production is reduced, thus weakening the immune response (1). Similarly, neutrophils and HL-60 cells are also reduced in copper deficiency, leading to neutropenia (2).

Reduces Inflammation
Copper is considered anti-inflammatory, yet research is still uncovering the mechanisms of action behind these effects (3). 

Copper is also considered an antioxidant and may help reduce inflammation by reducing free radicals and oxidative damage (4). 


Allergy Support
No evidence found.

Respiratory Support
No evidence found.

Nerve Support
Copper is required for a range of nervous system functions including central nervous system development, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, and neurological functioning (5). Studies show that copper deficiency or changes in the body’s copper homeostasis may cause a range of neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease (6). 

Heart Support
Low copper levels have been linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, and high blood pressure (7). Copper is required for healthy heart structure, blood vessel integrity and ability to dilate, and the proper functioning of blood cells (8). 

Gut Health Support
Studies suggest copper may help improve the gut microbiome by improving gut resilience to infection (9).

Copper may also help improve weight loss as studies suggest it encourages lipid metabolism (10). 

Energy Support
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in those with chronic fatigue syndrome. Studies suggest that copper may offer support, along with other vitamins and minerals, to help increase energy in those with excessive fatigue (11).

Copper is also needed to absorb iron from the diet. Supplementing with copper can help improve iron absorption to reduce anemia-related fatigue (12).

Mood Support
No strong evidence found. 


Sleep Support
No strong evidence found. 

 

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REFERENCES:

 

  1. Percival SS. Copper and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 May;67(5 Suppl):1064S-1068S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/67.5.1064S. PMID: 9587153.

 

  1. Percival SS. Neutropenia caused by copper deficiency: possible mechanisms of action. Nutr Rev. 1995 Mar;53(3):59-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1995.tb01503.x. PMID: 7770185.

 

  1.  Berthon G. Is copper pro- or anti-inflammatory? A reconciling view and a novel approach for the use of copper in the control of inflammation. Agents Actions. 1993 Jul;39(3-4):210-7. doi: 10.1007/BF01998975. PMID: 8304249.

 

  1. Gaetke LM, Chow CK. Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients. Toxicology. 2003 Jul 15;189(1-2):147-63. doi: 10.1016/s0300-483x(03)00159-8. PMID: 12821289.

 

  1. Desai V, Kaler SG. Role of copper in human neurological disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):855S-8S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/88.3.855S. PMID: 18779308.

 

  1. Bisaglia, Marco, and Luigi Bubacco. “Copper Ions and Parkinson's Disease: Why Is Homeostasis So Relevant?.” Biomolecules vol. 10,2 195. 29 Jan. 2020, doi:10.3390/biom10020195

 

  1. Saari JT. Copper deficiency and cardiovascular disease: role of peroxidation, glycation, and nitration. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Oct;78(10):848-55. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-78-10-848. PMID: 11077985.

 

  1. Saari JT, Schuschke DA. Cardiovascular effects of dietary copper deficiency. Biofactors. 1999;10(4):359-75. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520100406. PMID: 10619703.

 

  1. Zhang, Yiming et al. “Effect of Dietary Copper on Intestinal Microbiota and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Escherichia Coli in Weaned Piglets.” Frontiers, Frontiers, 19 Nov. 2019, www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02808/full. 

 

  1. Lei, Liu et al. “Effect of dietary copper addition on lipid metabolism in rabbits.” Food & nutrition research vol. 61,1 1348866. 6 Jul. 2017, doi:10.1080/16546628.2017.1348866

 

  1. Maric, Daniela et al. “Multivitamin mineral supplementation in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.” Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research vol. 20 47-53. 14 Jan. 2014, doi:10.12659/MSM.889333

 

  1. Wazir, Shoaib M, and Ibrahim Ghobrial. “Copper deficiency, a new triad: anemia, leucopenia, and myeloneuropathy.” Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives vol. 7,4 265-268. 19 Sep. 2017, doi:10.1080/20009666.2017.1351289